SDP_NCL09_2019 - X-ray Crystallography
Instructor Name :-
Gonnade ,Mr.R. G.
X-ray crystallography is the most powerful method for determining accurate and precise crystal structures of small as well as macromolecules (protein, peptide, nucleic acids, polymer, etc.). Crystallographers discovered that crystals, because of their regular arrangement of atoms, scattered the rays in just a few specific directions. By measuring these directions and the intensity of the scattered beams, scientists were able to determine a three-dimensional structure of the crystal. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography is widely considered to be the standard for establishing the structures of crystalline solids. This method is used to establish patent claims, establish structure-property relationships for new compounds, and many other applications. However, powder crystallography instrumentation and data analysis software have emerged over the past 30 years as powerful methods for investigating the structures of materials that cannot be studied with single-crystal methods. Powder methods are used in a wide variety of investigations, including forensic analyses, identifying components of mixtures, and identifying properties of polymers and other poorly crystallized materials. X-ray crystallography has become the leading technique for studying the atomic structure and related properties of materials. It is now at the centre of advances in many fields of science. In the last century, crystallography has been a primary force in driving major advances in the detailed understanding of materials, synthetic chemistry, the understanding of basic principles of biological processes, genetics, and has contributed to major advances in the development of drugs for numerous diseases. As a science, crystallography has produced 28 Nobel Prizes, more than any other scientific field.